Machinery and Equipment

Course CodeBSC105
Fee CodeS2
Duration (approx)100 hours
QualificationStatement of Attainment

Learn about Machinery and Equipment

for better Land Management, in farming and horticulture

  • Develop a foundation to manage the selection, operation and maintenance of tools and machinery
  • Learn how machines and equipment can be used to make work more efficient and effective
Start with the Basics of Machinery Used in Horticulture and Agriculture and be an asset to your employer or within your own business. Save time and money by identifying and rectifying problems before they become a major expense. Be more efficient in the workplace by choosing the right tool for the job - every time.

Lesson Structure

There are 8 lessons in this course:

  1. Engine Operation
    • History of Engines
    • Measurements and mechanical principles
    • Load, Force, Pressure, Atmospheric Pressure
    • Gravity, Centre of Gravity, Specific Gravity
    • Density, Volumetric Efficiency, Vacuum, Work, Power, Energy
    • Bore, Piston Motion, Piston Displacement
    • Compression Ratio
    • Converting Imperial Measurements to Metric
    • Understanding a Petrol Engine
    • Engine Operating Cycle
    • The Transmission System Stages in 4 Stroke Spark Ignition Engine Cycle
    • Stages in 2 stroke spark ignition Engine Cycle
    • Engine Efficiency
    • Understanding Electricity
    • Circuits
    • Measuring Electricity; current, voltage, resistance, Ohm’s Law
    • Power
    • Electricity Supply; batteries, mains power, generators, solar cells
    • Electricity and Engines
    • Electric Motors
  2. Hydraulics
    • What is Hydraulics
    • Simple Hydraulic System
    • Pumps
    • Tractors
    • Hydraulic Tappings
    • System Valves
    • 3 point linkage on tractors
    • Pressure
    • Measuring Pressure
    • Pressure Head
    • Friction Loss
    • Calculating Friction Loss
    • Calculating Discharge or Flow
    • Velocity
    • Water Hammer
    • Submersible Pumps
    • Irrigation
    • Measuring Water available to plants
    • Irrigation Calculations
  3. Machinery Components
    • Parts of an Engine
    • Lubrication System
    • Cooling System
    • Fuel System
    • Ignition System
    • Transmission System
    • Examples of Mechanisation; potting machines, planters and drills, harvesters, graders, mowers
  4. Hand Tools
    • Lifting objects manually
    • Scope of tools and equipment
    • Secateurs
    • Hand Saws
    • Rakes
    • Spades and Shovels
    • Forks
    • Aerating Equipment
    • Rollers
    • Hoes
    • Wheelbarrows
    • Sprayers
  5. Power Tools
    • Types of tools
    • Drills
    • Grinders
    • Power Saws
    • Compressors
    • Hedge Trimmers
    • Chain Saws
    • Brush Cutters
    • Mowers
    • Mulchers
    • Rotary Hoes
    • Tool Safety
    • Tool Maintenance
  6. Tractors
    • Choosing a tractor
    • Choosing implements and attachments
    • Mini Tractors
    • Tractor Parts
    • Clutch
    • Transmission
    • Tractor safety
    • Tractor operation
    • Tractor Engine Fault Finding
    • Common operating faults
  7. Equipment Maintenance
    • Cleaning and Sharpening tools
    • Secateurs and branch cutting tools
    • Shovels and spades
    • Saws and Chainsaws
    • Rust protection
    • Maintaining timber handles
    • Plastic handles
    • Storage
    • Maintenance Procedures and Schedules
    • Training Equipment Operators
    • Rules for Operators
    • Engine Oil Additives
  8. Specific Workplace Requirements
    • Machinery Specifications
    • Application for an Industry Sector

Aims

  • Explain the operation of different types of motors, including petrol and electric engines.
  • Explain the principles of hydraulics in relation to agricultural and horticultural use.
  • Explain the operation of the main components of machinery commonly used in agriculture and horticulture including cooling, lubrication, fuel distribution, ignition and transmission systems.
  • Explain the safe and effective operation of different hand tools commonly used in agriculture or horticulture.
  • Determine the safe and appropriate operation of power tools in horticultural and agricultural situations.
  • Explain the safe and appropriate operation of a tractor in horticultural and agricultural situations.
  • Explain the maintenance procedures for different equipment commonly used in agriculture and horticulture, including hand tools, power tools and tractors.
  • Determine appropriate equipment for minimum work requirements in an agricultural or horticultural workplace.

Machines

Most machines used on a farm or in a horticultural enterprise will be driven by either a 2 stroke or 4 stroke engines. Both engines are different types of internal combustion engines. Each of these two types of engines has certain advantages and disadvantages.

They both run by a series of controlled explosions occurring in an “internal” (enclosed) chamber or cylinder. The size of the equipment to be powered will dictate whether you use a two stroke or four stoke engine. Equipment size will also dictate how many cylinders are required. Two stroke petrol engines are used to power smaller equipment like chain saws and small horticultural equipment. Four stoke engines are used for larger equipment and may have one or more cylinders depending the power required.

When an explosion occurs it causes movement in parts of the engine. That movement is translated to a shaft which is caused to turn. As the shaft turns (rotates) it is able to cause something else to turn that does certain work (e.g. turning the wheels of a tractor, the blades of a mower or the parts of a hydraulic pump).

The four stroke engine has one power stroke in every four stokes, and the two stroke has one power stroke in every two strokes. This is explained in more detail later in this lesson. A four stroke is obviously more powerful, but also more expensive and more complex. In a two stroke engine, the intake, exhaust, power and compression strokes of the engine occur in one rotation of the crankshaft.

With a four stroke engine there is more time between this series of events with the crankshaft making two complete rotations for the four stages of one stroke to happen. Two-stroke engines have the advantage over 4-stroke engines by being lighter. They can be used at angles and upside down as there is no oil in the crankcase. A two stroke is however less efficient than 4-stroke engines and requires lubricating oil to be mixed in with the fuel and tends to run less evenly. Two stroke engines usually run at higher speeds than four stroke engines. Four stroke engines have intake and exhaust valves, two stroke engines have intake and exhaust ports.

Tips for Hand Tools

  • Strong tools will take greater physical stress and handle heavier jobs without breaking (e.g: If you buy a cheap tool built with cheap materials it might not last till the end of the first day, particularly if you are doing heavy work)
  • Sharp tools put less stress on the tool and less strain on YOU the user.
  • Long handles give you greater leverage and increased reach, putting less strain on your back and other parts of your body.
  • When you pay more for a tool, you are usually paying for long hours of thought which have gone into its design. Tools which do the job better and more easily are generally the more expensive ones.
  • If your soil is heavy clay or rocky, your tools are likely to be strained more ‑you will need better quality tools.
  • If your soil is easy to dig (perhaps sandy), you may get away with using cheaper, poorer quality tools.
  • Metal tools made with stainless steel or aluminium do not corrode like those made with other metals.

 

WHO CAN BENEFIT FROM DOING THIS COURSE?

  • Farmers and anyone in land management
  • Crop growers: vegetables, flowers any type of horticultural crop
  • Professional gardeners
  • Turf managers
  • Parks and gardens managers and maintenance crews
  • Those working in roadside management

This course will make you an asset to your profession!