Course CodeVHT114
Fee CodeS2
Duration (approx)100 hours
QualificationStatement of Attainment


Acacias have more uses than most people realize. The most obvious use is as a garden plant or perhaps for timber. Acacias are also grown and harvested for a whole range of other purposes.

  • Expand your plant knowledge, improve your career and business opportunities in horticulture
  • Understand how to use wattles for land rehabilitation and other practical purposes


Lesson Structure

There are 8 lessons in this course:

  1. Introduction and Resources.
    • Nature and Scope of Acacias
    • Plant/Acacia Taxonomy (classification and naming)
    • Acacia Ecosystems
    • Significant Acacias from Australia, Africa and the Middle East
  2. Physiology and Botany of Acacias.
    • Acacia relatives; and the Order Fabales
    • Understanding flower structure of Acacias
    • The inflorescence
    • Using Botanical terms to describe Acacias
    • Foliage characteristics
    • Classifying Acacias according to foliage type
    • Classifying Acacias according to flower type
    • Acacia fruit characteristics (seed pods)
  3. Culture
    • Environmental considerations
    • Nutritional considerations
    • Acacia Pests and Diseases
    • Soil conditions for Acacias
    • Typical cultural requirements
    • Australian Acacias (review of size, foliage and flowering)
    • Weed management
    • Soil testing
  4. Propagation
    • Scope of wattle propagation
    • Acacia Seed treatments
    • Sowing Acacia seeds
    • Seed storage
    • Acacia cutting propagation
    • Transplanting seedlings or cuttings
    • Potting up
  5. Acacias And Their Uses
    • Landscape Applications (windbreaks, screens, shrubberies, erosion control, soil enrichment, rock gardens, tubs)
    • Plant selection
    • Buying the right specimen
    • Using Acacias as specimen trees
    • Garden Design with Acacias
    • Creating landscape affects
    • Acacia species for different conditions
  6. Other Uses For Acacias
    • Timber
    • Tanning
    • Cut Flowers
    • Perfumery with Acacias
    • Acacias for human food
    • Acacias for animal fodder
    • Gum Arabic
  7. Pest and Disease of Acacias
    • Nature and scope of Pest and Disease
    • Pest and Disease problems detected on Acacias
    • Environmental problems
  8. Special Project
    • Problem Based Learning style project
    • Plan the establishment of a collection of Acacias for a specific location.


  • Describe the way in which Acacias are classified.
  • Determine how to find reliable resource information that relates to Acacias
  • Describe the physiology of Acacias
  • Determine cultural requirements that are common to Acacias
  • Determine propagation methods that are commonly applicable to Acacias.
  • Describe a variety of commercial uses for Acacias.
  • Describe a range of other practical uses for Acacias.
  • Identify and recommend treatment for a variety of health problems occurring with Acacias.
  • Develop an in depth understanding of one aspect of Acacia Growing.


The scientific name of Acacia was revised by a group of botanists (over a period up to 2011) to split it into two genera. Not everyone accepts and uses these changes though. You need to be aware of this however - in order to avoid any confusion you might encounter.

Species (163, predominantly from outside Australia) were given the new genus name Vachellia.  Despite being accepted by botanists - it remains to be seen how quickly this new genus might be adopted by tradesmen in the horticulture industry and the general public.  As a student of Acacias, you should be aware of the change, but also appreciate the fact that many people you talk with may be unaware of what you are talking about if you use the name Vachellia.


Wattle seeds have been harvested and eaten by aboriginal people for centuries in Australia and used as fodder, famine and food crops in other countries particularly Africa. Around 10% of Acacias (i.e. approximately 50 species) are known to produce edible seeds. Of these, three have been more widely eaten than others. Some species are known to be toxic and many are simply not palatable.

Acacia albida (Apple Ring Acacia)
A thorny tree to 25m (sometimes shrub-like) - it is widespread throughout tropical and southern Africa and also Cyprus, Israel and Lebanon.
This is a much used tree in Africa and also used as a food crop by people in Rhodesia during times of famine. The seeds have approx. 27% protein and do not deteriorate nutritionally upon drying. The seeds are boiled twice firstly to more easily remove the skins and then again to remove the kernels. The seeds are ground as a flour and also used as a fodder crop for farm animals.

Acacia aneura
(Mulga Wattle)  
Native to the arid outback areas of Australia a shrub like small tree to 15m was an important food source for indigenous people.
Seeds can be ground to edible paste after first separating the seeds from the pods. The seeds are roasted in hot ashes then ground into a paste whilst moistened with water.

Acacia kempeana (Witchetty Bush)
The seed of this plant was an important food source for indigenous people (Australia). This is also known as the witchetty bush (the species hosts the grub which was also a food source).
This is a shrub that is rarely over 1.5 metres tall, but occasionally to 3 metres.

  • Flowers are cylindrical, yellow and to 6 cm long.
  • Frost tolerant and very hardy requiring little care once established.
  • Good dry inland semi-arid to arid temperate areas.

Acacia ligulata (Small Cooba, Sandhill Wattle, Dune Wattle)
A widely spread shrub native to Australia, but occurs mostly on sand hills across most of inland Australia (not the far north), it grows to between 1 and 4 metres high with orange or yellowish ball flowers. Seeds can be ground into edible paste.

Acacia longifolia (Sydney Golden Wattle)
A large shrub or small tree (6-8m tall) native to south eastern Australia and extending from the far South East of Qld. down to Victoria and in the South East of South Australia; it has long narrow phyllodes and narrow drooping seed pods.  It produces large, protein rich seeds - these seeds are bitter and can have a 'sulphur' taste if eaten raw. Roasting or steaming the seeds makes them more palatable and gives them a nut like flavour. Roasted seeds can be used as a coffee like beverage.

Acacia murrayana (Murray’s Wattle, Colony Wattle)
From arid inland, central Australia; shrub of 2metres tall, or tree up to 7 metres with a 5 metre spread with glaucous, greyish foliage.
Seeds are ground to edible paste by Aborigines.  

  • Grubs often attack in roots
  • Frost hardy
  • Short lived

Acacia victoriae (Gundabluie, Bardi bush)
Wide spread shrub that grows 2 – 5m tall and native to Australia; it suits semi-arid to warm temperate climates e.g. arid areas in Western Australia, Northern Australia Victoria  and South Australia. It has been cultivated commercially in the Flinders Ranges (South Australia) to harvest seeds it is also grown in Pakistan, Israel and Iran.

Harvest and Processing Wattle Seeds

  • Pods need to first be picked, dried (usually in the sun), and have seeds extracted.
  • The seeds then need to be cleaned (you only want clean seed so remove any dirt, pods, twigs etc).
  • The clean seed then should be cooked (either steamed or roasted).
  • Cooked seed may be stored for a period and packets of roasted seeds may be found for sale commercially at times.

The cooked seeds are commonly ground into a paste adding a small quantity of water as it is being ground.  The paste can then be frozen for later use. The paste has traditionally been made into small cakes and baked. Seeds can also be boiled to extract the flavour and create an ‘essence’ that can then be used for flavouring foods (e.g. ice cream) or as a beverage (e.g. wattle seed coffee).

Where will this course take you?

  • Be an expert in this field
  • Work in an environmental job
  • Re-vegetation projects
  • Land rehabilitation projects



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