Course CodeBHT235Fee CodeS2Duration (approx)100 hoursQualificationStatement of Attainment Learn how to Design Different Types of Gardens For landscape and Garden Design Professionals, or passionate garden enthusiasts Expand your Career opportunities Extend the services offered by your landscape business Understand how different styles of garden can be properly created Throughout garden history, people have created different types of gardens in different places, with different purposes in mind. Gardens have in some places, at some times, been influenced more by fashion, religion or social conditions than by practicalities. At other times, garden style has been primarily influenced by practical concerns. While many people today may choose to create gardens to reflect their own preferences, whether aesthetic or practical; sometimes new gardens are created to mimic (at least partially), a previous style -whether from a particular region of the world, or perhaps a particular time in history. We can also gain inspiration from styles of the past. By looking at what people did in another time and place, we sometimes discover ideas that can be incorporated into a new garden. There are really no rules which you MUST always follow; though to create a particular style, the characteristics of a garden should be dominated by that one style. Example: An oriental garden is a garden dominated by those features which characterise an oriental garden A modern garden is dominated by modern features A cottage garden in dominated by features which would have been found in a cottage garden of old England and similar places. When styles are mixed so that no one style dominates, the resulting style might be called “Eclectic”. Lesson Structure There are 10 lessons in this course: Creating the Mood Active vs Passive Simple vs. complex Movement vs. Static Light vs. Shade Managing Light and Shade Increasing or Reducing Light Plants that Thrive in Shade Garden Lighting Other Factors that Affect Mood What Do You Want in a Garden Personality in the Garden Keeping it in Scale Colour and the Garden Using Coloured Statuary Other Coloured Surfaces Psychological Effects of Colours Water in the Garden Hot Plants Making a Garden Appear Cooler Site Analysis Macro Design Designing a Garden Room Historic Gardens Introduction Roman Gardens Chinese Gardens Landscape Designers Historic Considerations Other Types of Gardens; formal, informal, natural, resort, permaculture, herb, rose, cottage Cottage Garden Design Cottage Garden Features Plants in a Cottage Garden Federation Gardens Edwardian Gardens Formal Gardens Introduction Design Elements of Formal Gardens Types of Formal Garden; Avenue, hedged beds, etc Planting in Formal Gardens Traditional Ornamentation; Sundials, Weather vanes, Bird Baths Traditional Furniture; seats, pots, arbors, arches, gazebos Formal Courtyards Oriental Gardens Introduction Chinese Gardens Japanese Gardens Types of Japanese Gardens: Hill and Pond, Dry Landscape, Tea Garden, Stroll Garden, Courtyard, Classic Rock Garden Japanese Garden Features; Tori, Shishi-odishi, Moss Garden, Bamboo Fence, Bridges Bonsai Ornamental Grasses Middle Eastern and Spanish Style Introduction Features of Moorish Gardens Sense of Enclosure Mexican Style Mexican Planting Schemes Use of Coloured Gravel Mediterranean Gardens Introduction Features of Mediterranean Gardens Regional Differences Colours Built Landscape Plant Material Use of Paint Veranda Gardens Making the Most of Small Spaces Microclimates Coastal Gardens Coastal Garden Features Temperature, Humidity and Wind Windbreaks Salt and Soil Conditions Coastal Plants Modern Gardens Introduction Technology in the garden; screens, lights, water features, music Maintenance Architecture; shapes and angles, colour, sculpture Courtyards Inner City Gardens Types of Inner City Gardens Future Trends Eclectic Gardens Creating an Eclectic Garden Using Garden Ornaments in an Eclectic Garden Plants Living Art Topiary Hedges Pleaching Miniature Gardens Trough Gardens Pebble Gardens Art Gardens Public Gardens Other Styles Dryland Gardens The Desert Landscape Xeriscapes Australian Bush Garden Cacti and Succulent Gardens Minimalist Landscapes Permaculture Rainforest Gardens Tropical Style Gardens Bird Attracting Gardens Bulb Gardens Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.Aims Explain the use of colour, light, shade, temperature, water, foliage and other elements in establishing the mood of a garden. Describe gardens from different places and periods in history; and in doing so explain how to renovate and/or recreate gardens that reflect the style of different historic periods. Apply the principles, design features and elements that make up a formal garden. Discuss cultural and historical traditions that contributed to the development and style of the oriental garden. Discuss cultural and historical traditions that have contributed to the development and style of the Middle Eastern and Spanish garden. Discuss the historic, climatic and cultural influences which have contributed to the style of Mediterranean gardens. Discuss design styles of coastal gardens Explain the limitations and potential of coastal sites when preparing a landscape design. Discuss contemporary garden design styles and possible future trends in garden design. Identify the range of diversity possible in garden design. Identify characteristics of different garden styles including eclectic, dryland, permaculture, rainforest and tropical garden styles. Design different styles of gardens. WHAT YOU WILL DO IN THIS COURSE These are just some examples of the things you may find yourself doing: Visit different gardens to assess the mood of each garden. Take time to observe each garden and try to identify the different elements that contribute to the garden mood. Observe how colour has been used in the three different gardens. Observe the colours of both plants and hard surfaces, and the way the colours have been combined. Visit an historic garden in your area. Identify different features that make this an historic garden. Visit a formal garden in your area. Identify features that make this a formal garden. Visit an oriental garden either in person or by research. Search for more information on gardens that reflect the styles. Make notes of anything you find which is interesting and could be used in development of a Mediterranean style of garden in the locality in which you live. Visit a coastal region near where you live and observe the type of plants that are growing near the seashore. Also observe the plants and design elements of nearby gardens. (If you are unable to visit a coastal region, use descriptions of coastal sites and gardens from books, magazines and the internet.) Visit a modern courtyard garden (if there is no suitable garden in your area, use a garden described in a book, magazine or on the internet). Identify and describe the elements that make this a ‘modern’ garden. How has the designer overcome the restrictions of the site to create a feeling of spaciousness? Search through telephone books, magazines and the internet to find suppliers of materials suitable for eclectic gardens such as pots, sundials, pebbles, statues, wrought iron, tiles, gazebos, seats, wind chimes, etc. Visit as many suppliers as possible and inspect these materials. Find out about their cost, availability and longevity. Depending upon where you live, visit a dryland, permaculture, tropical, or rainforest garden in your area (if there is no suitable garden in your area, use a garden described in a book, magazine or on the internet). Identify and describe the elements that determine the style of this garden. How Can You Influence the Mood of a Garden? There are many elements that contribute to the ambience or mood of a garden. Colour is perhaps most significant, however the choice of plants, the quantity of plants (or no plants), the permanent structures and ornamentation are also important. Active vs. Passive A garden with a barbecue area, a sandpit, a swing, a pool and a child’s play house would be seen as being ‘active’. It is clear that the garden is more utilitarian. Conversely, a garden with a bench beneath some shade trees, a pond, a sculpture, a herbaceous border and some specimen trees would create an ambience of tranquillity. It is more likely that the owners would spend time resting in the garden and admiring it. It would be considered ‘passive’. Simple vs. Complex A complex garden will clearly have lots of intricate areas created through using many different plant species. It may have a number of paths that lead to different areas of the garden. These areas may pertain to a number of different themes. There could be a number of different focal points. It could be planted so that different plants look their best at different times of the year, so as to maintain year round interest. Such a garden may have a number of effects on ambience. It may be quite stimulating for the onlooker encouraging them to look further and more deeply into the garden. It may activate their imagination and inspire them toward their own gardening aspirations. If the garden is extremely complex, however, it may also serve to overwhelm some individuals who would prefer something a little less complex so as to be able to relax. On the other hand, a simple garden may have few plants, perhaps a large lawn area or paved area and little in the way of features. Such a garden would be more likely to evoke a feeling of relaxation and perhaps permit the onlooker to focus on their own thoughts. If the garden is too simple, however, it may make the onlooker feel disinterested or bored in the garden and it will therefore fail to attract people into it. Light vs. Shade The amount of light in the garden has quite a profound effect on mood. A garden that has much light could be associated with feelings of openness, joy, elation and optimism. A garden that has much shade would create feelings of enclosure, frustration, and gloom. Movement vs. Static Movement in the garden can be created in a number of ways. It can come about through the natural movement of trees and shrubs in the wind, through mobiles or through water fountains. It gives an air of vitality and of life. The associated sounds reiterate this sense of living; the rustle of the leaves in the trees, the splash of the water. On the contrary, a garden that has little movement may seem rather dull and lifeless. Other Factors Affecting Mood As well as the compositional elements, mood may be affected through the garden theme. A Japanese or Chinese garden may conjure up thoughts and feelings associated with the orient. A rigidly formal garden may evoke austerity, power and respect. A modern garden could trigger feelings of youth, vitality and chic. The general state of the garden also plays an important role in the effect that it has on mood. For example, a well-maintained garden gives the impression of orderliness, attention and care. An overgrown garden with dilapidated structures, broken pots and pavers and so on, gives the feeling of neglect, decay and at worst, death (compare this too with the associations with history, battles and bygone times that are conjured up through the careful placing of cracked pillars, aged vases and other historical structures). Humour can be injected into the garden using such tings as ornaments (anything from gnomes to manikins, toy cars to bizarre sculptures), planting up amusing containers such as a car tyre or old toilet, installing unusually twisted foliage or trees with funny shaped trunks, or perhaps even pruning a box tree into the shape of a helicopter or elephant. Mystery can be achieved through concealed entrances, covered walkways, peepholes, murals separate ‘garden rooms’. There are indeed numerous ways in which a myriad of moods can be instigated and the personality of the owner reflected in the garden. Shade Can Change both Mood and Possibilities in a Garden Shaded areas sometimes seem to evolve without much thought, but at other times, they need to be created. Shade is an essential component in some styles of garden (eg. a woodland or rainforest), but may be an optional component in other gardens. The amount of shade in a garden can affect both it's function and style. If you don’t have any existing shaded areas, the two main ways you can create them, are either by growing shaded trees or by building structures to provide shade, such as pergolas, fences or shade houses. Pergolas Pergolas are structures built to provide shade and shelter within a garden. They usually consist of a roof supported by posts and/or the walls of an adjacent building. The roof is commonly made from beams covered by some material which filters the sunlight while still allowing rain to penetrate. It’s normal for one or more sides of the pergola to be open, allowing access to adjacent garden areas Shade Houses Shade houses are created simply by covering a framework (usually timber) with shade cloth. The traditional shade cloth colours of black and green have been extended these days to include grey, pale blue, sandstone, brown and white. Green is actually the least desirable colour as the plants do not photosynthesise effectively. The green fibres make the light slightly green and the green used does not blend in with natural leaf greens. Black is perhaps the colour which is least noticeable. Brown fits in well with rustic and colonial style homes and with natural gardens, while sandstone may be in keeping with the colour of the bricks or roof tiles of a house. Pale blue and white go well with white houses and swimming pools. White shade cloth is good for growing plants, as they are protected but still grow in bright conditions. The light is reflected and dispersed as it passes through. In warmer climates, darker coloured shade cloth will have more of a cooling affect than the lighter colours. What Plants Should be Used in Shade A shaded area not only looks better when planted with the right plants, but is also easier to maintain. As discussed in earlier chapters: plants have varying degrees of tolerance to sun and shade, and information about what will grow best in your shaded area is hard to give, because there are so many variables involved. Many plants are listed as shade loving or shade tolerant; but this does not always mean they perform at their best in shade in your locality. It is important to understand that shade in one place may not mean the same as shade in another. Shade in a hot climate where light intensity is strong and days are long over winter; will have different conditions to shade in a cold climate where light intensities and day lengths can be quite different in the cooler months.